TABLE OF CONTENTS
INITIAL FIRE SCENE OPERATIONS 4
VEHICLE FIRE RESPONSE 6
VEHICLE ACCIDENT RESPONSE 6
VEHICLE EXTRICATION 7
STRUCTURE FIRE INTERIOR ATTACK 7
SEARCH AND RESCUE 7
SMOKE INVESTIGATION 8
VENTILATION OPERATIONS 8
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS 9
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENT
RESPONSE POLICY 9
RANGELAND FIRES 10
MUTUAL AID 11
ELECTRICAL EMERGENCIES 11
S.C.B.A. POLICY 12
CONTROLLED BURNS 13
FIREGROUND OFFICER PRIMARY
FIREFIGHTER PRIMARY DUTIES 14
FIRE GROUND IDENTIFICATION - 15
"ON-DUTY" POLICY 15
COMMUNICABLE DISEASE PROTOCOL 16
BOMB / TERRORIST THREAT
RESPONSE GUIDELINES 17
MASS CASUALTY INCIDENT 18
SEVERE WEATHER SPOTTER
REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 21
PERSONNEL ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEM 25
EMERGENCY VEHICLE DRIVING 26
RADIO COMMUNICATIONS GUIDELINES 30
EMERGENCY VEHICLE DRIVER
FIRE SCENE INVESTIGATION
RAPID INTERVENTION TEAM /
SEARCH & RESCUE 38
Full protective gear shall be worn on all calls, personnel
may stand down from full gear with the approval of the officer in command after
the scene is declared safe. Drivers of apparatus may wear street clothing to
the scene and don protective gear upon arrival.
Officers and emergency medical team members not in the Immediate
Danger to Life and Health Zone (IDLHZ) may wear less than full gear.
All personnel shall be seated on the apparatus and
seatbelts fastened before the apparatus proceeds. No one will ride on the
apparatus where a seat is not provided. (see emerency driving guidelines)
Only members authorized by a chief officer shall drive or operate a piece of apparatus
on an emergency call. Authorization will
be given by the a chief officer after the member has demonstrated his/her
ability to operate the apparatus and complete knowledge of the entire apparatus.
Smoking is not allowed on or in any of the apparatus. (See driving
As each piece of apparatus leaves the station the driver or
the passenger in the right seat will advise GIEC of their status as
"Responding" (10-8) and shall advise if an officer is on board. As each piece arrives at the scene they will
advise GIEC of their status of arrived "On Scene" (10-97) (see radio
All units will continue to scene if orders to
disregard come from anyone other than a
When the emergency is over, each piece of apparatus will
advise GIEC of their status of finished
with last assignment (10-98) and if they are enroute to the station. When each piece has returned to station and
is ready to respond, GIEC. will be advised of status "available in
quarters". (10-10) (see radio communications guidelines)
The first arriving units at the scene shall advise other
responding units of the conditions at the scene as they observe them and report
an initial size - up of the incident. (see radio communications guidelines)
To include but not limited to the following:
* Size Up
* Apparatus Placement
* Lay Hose lines And Establish Water Supply
* Charge Hose lines
* Search And Rescue / Rapid Intervention Team
* Protection Of Exposures
* Traffic And Crowd Control
* Disconnect Utilities
* Initial Fire Attack
* Ventilation Coordinated With Search And
Rescue & Initial Fire
* Initial Salvage Operations
Initial structure fire attacks should be made
with 1-1/2" or larger hose lines,
for each line of attack there shall be one line of equal or larger size for
protection, initially nozzles should be set at 125 gals. per minute.
An ambulance shall respond to all structure fires,
hazardous materials calls and extrication / victim trapped calls or as
The rescue pumper shall respond to all motor vehicle
accidents to provide for fire protection and to insure that an extrication can
be initiated without undue delay if needed.
The following are recommended Standard response assignments for a
Routine calls for service. They
are suggestions only and may be altered by an officer to fit the prevailing
operational situation or staffing abilities.
Other units may respond, if the recommended assignments are already
staffed. Unit 60 is capable of
transporting 12 personnel, it should also respond to any call that would
require a command post:
IN CITY LIMITS - UNITS 30,31,99-1,40,60
AUTOMATIC MUTUAL AID FROM CAIRO FD
STRUCTURE FIRES OUTSIDE CITY
- UNITS 30,40,,99-1,31, 20,60
MUTUAL AID FROM CAIRO FD
INVESTIGATIONS, FIRE OR CO ALARMS -
VEHICLE FIRES - UNITS 30,40
GRASS FIRES - UNITS 20,31,4.
Consider unit 60
MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS (10-45)
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENT RESPONSE - UNITS 30,40,99-1,60
VICTIM TRAPPED "JAWS OF LIFE" CALLS -UNITS
"CODE BLUE" RESCUE
CALL - UNITS 99-1, 20 or 30
AMBULANCE TRANSPORTATION CALLS -
it is the policy of the department to discourage non-emergency use of the ambulance
services. In the event of a request for
non-emergency ambulance transportation, the ability to maintain an adequate
staff for emergency responsibilities shall be of prime consideration. Also, the nature of the transport and the
destination shall be considered before a request shall be accepted for such
services. If for any reason the
emergency and or mutual aid responsibilities of the department might be
compromised by staffing a transport only call, that request shall be denied.
MUTUAL AID - it is department
policy to send no more than one of any type apparatus to a mutual aid call,
this is to insure coverage of our own district at all times. The preceding
recommended response is the guideline for routine mutual aid requests taking
into account the one type apparatus rule.
Any order for response from an officer that differs from this response
list shall take priority. Personnel availability to cover our primary response
area shall also be considered during mutual aid requests.
* Class A Pumper Response Unit
30 Or 31
* Stop At Least 500 Ft. Before Scene To Assess Incident With Binoculars
Evidence If A Truck Is Involved.
* Full Protective Gear
* S. C. B. A.
* 100 Ft Danger Zone (Apparatus Parked Outside Zone)
* 1-1/2" Hand line Minimum Attack Line
* Attack Fire From Sides Of Vehicle
* Respond With Ambulance (99-1 Or 99-2)
* Respond with Rescue Pumper (Unit 30) with Extrication Equipment.
* stop at least 500 ft. Before scene to assess incident with binoculars
for haz-mat evidence if a
truck is involved.
* Full Protective Gear (EMT's responding in the
rescue unit may wear full gear)
* 100 Foot Danger Zone (Apparatus Parked Outside Zone)
* One 1-1/2" Protection Line Charged And Manned (Min.) EMT's responding in the rescue unit may at their option wait
to start rescue operations until this line has been laid and is charged.
* Full Protective Gear
* Stabilize vehicle as soon as possible.
* Assist EMT's With Patient Stabilization
* One 1-1/2" Protection Line Charged And Manned (Min.)
* Traffic Control As Needed.
* Extrication tools will be used only by personnel who have
completed extrication training.
STRUCTURE FIRE INTERIOR ATTACK
* Full Protective Gear
* Minimum Handline Size
* 1-1/2" Backup Line Charged And Manned
* All Hose Teams Will Use Buddy System
* Two Firefighters Will Be In Full Gear With SCBA Donned As A Rapid
Intervention Team (Rit) For Firefighters Inside The Structure
* SCBA Will Be Used Only By Personnel That Have Completed An SCBA
Course Of Training.
* An Adequate Water Supply Will Be Established And Maintained
* An Interior Attack Will Be Aborted If Any Sign Of Danger To
Firefighters Is Detected
* Full protective gear
* SCBA as required
* Safety rope may be used, handline charged is preferred.
* All rescuers will use buddy system
* One fire fighter will be in full gear with SCBA donned as a backup
for every rescuer inside structure.
SCBA will only be used by trained personnel
* Firefighters will be positioned at windows and doors outside of the
building to aid in the rescue and monitor the search team's progress.
* Any search and rescue attempt will be aborted if any sign of danger
to the search team is detected.
* Full Protective Gear
* S.C.B.A. as required
* Safety Rope May Be Used, Hand line Charged Is Preferred.
* All Firefighters Will Use Buddy System
* One Firefighter Will Be In Full Gear With SCBA Donned As A Backup For
Every Firefighter Inside Of Structure.
* One 1-1/2" Hand line Charged And Manned For Protection as
* Full protective gear
* S. C. B. A.
* Buddy system
* Ventilator shall wear a life line
* Two points of egress will be established and maintained during ventilation operations.
* Communications will be maintained with command officer to
coordinate with the attack team.
* Any sign(s) of stress to the roof area will be grounds to abort a
roof ventilation attempt.
* Full protective gear
* SCBA recommended
* 1-1/2 " protection line (min.)
* All construction will be overhauled to the point to which fire and
damage is no longer detected, to insure that the possibility of a rekindle is
* Full Protective Gear
* First arriving units will assess the scene from a safe distance
before arrival at the scene, to observe wind direction, weather conditions,
terrain, and other factors for safe placement of apparatus.
* Safety of our personnel has priority.
* A danger zone perimeter will be established as advised by the
commanding officer, the size of which will be at the officers discretion.
The Wood River Fire Department has for the purpose of clarity and
understanding adopted the following policy:
Any material in any form be it liquid, solid, radioactive or gaseous that may
by involvement with, or exposure to, cause one harm or loss of any degree at
the present or in the future. May be
classified exotic or non-exotic (i.e. non-exotic = gasoline,NH3,propane, familiar
farm chemicals, etc.)
FIRST RESPONDERS - OPERATIONS LEVEL an individual or organization that by sole virtue of close
proximity to an incident is the first to arrive at the scene. This individual or organization is not
necessarily the authority qualified to handle the incident but will control the
scene to the best of its ability for the sake of public safety. Responsibilities of this level of response
are outlined in the Federal Register.
The Wood River Fire Department will respond to exotic hazardous
materials incidents solely in the capacity of First Responders-Operations Level
for rescue, fire suppression and containment operations. The department will not respond to an exotic
hazardous materials incident for the purpose of clean up of any material deemed
by the officer or officers in command to be an exotic hazardous material.
The department may for the safety of its members, obtain and maintain a
supply of equipment that would be suitable for protective use in a hazardous
materials location. This equipment would
and will be used only for the purpose of protection of department personnel
involved in rescue, fire suppression and or containment operations where
possible exposure to hazardous materials could be a threat. This equipment would not be used by personnel
of the Wood River Volunteer Fire Department for the purpose of clean up of any
material deemed by the officer or officers in command to be an exotic hazardous
The Wood River Fire Department does not express or imply that it will
take any responsibility, financial or otherwise for the clean up of any exotic hazardous materials incident, spill, or release of any kind
either by accident or on purpose. Nor
will the department take any responsibility for any costs or damages incurred
by any other organization or authority that may be summoned to advise, control
or clean up any exotic hazardous materials incident, spill, or release of any
Classification of a hazardous material as an exotic or non exotic type
will be, for the purpose of implementation of this policy, at the discretion of
the commanding officer or officers at the scene.
Any fire suppression operation, rescue
operation, or other call of public assistance that must be performed on,
across, or near any roadway shall not commence until the officer in command has
determined that the area is free of traffic hazards. Traffic hazards will be controlled by any
means determined necessary to secure the safety of fire fighters during
emergency operations. Roadways obscured
by smoke will constitute a condition requiring a complete traffic detour or
shutdown before emergency operations will start.
* Modified Full protective gear - may remove some gear with permission
from commanding officer during an extended attack. Use of particulate masks
* Obtain weather service
forecast for area pertaining to wind direction and velocity and any expected
* Consider setting up dump tank and shuttle operations as soon as
feasible to insure adequate water supply
* Establish and maintain a line of retreat
* Consider the use of wetting agents to enhance the application of
water to extinguish wild land fires.
* Close roads or detour traffic if smoke obscures roadways
* The fire should be fought from the black if at all possible
* An attack from both flanks to the head of the fire followed by mop up
to control spot fires and flare ups should be considered as the first strategy.
First responding units to arrive at the scene shall advise
the commanding officer of scene conditions for that officers use in size up
Any condition that may appear to tax the limits of
manpower, equipment, or water supply will constitute the need for mutual aid.
Mutual aid should be summoned in a timely manner - better
to turn around unneeded men and equipment than to need men and equipment that
cannot arrive in time to help
Calls from other fire departments for aid will be answered
with the same urgency and expedience as calls in our own district would be
answered. We will send only one of any
type apparatus to a mutual aid call.
Availability of personnel to cover our primary response area shall also
be considered during mutual aid requests from other departments.
Automatic mutual aid is given to Cairo VFD and Alda VFD for
structure fires in their districts. Automatic mutual aid assignments shall be
answered with the customary response party. i.e. Structure fire = Units 30, 40,
99-1, unit 60 as needed.
* Full Protective Gear
* When downed wires are encountered a minimum danger zone of one span
in either direction should be established
* Have power company personnel dispatched to scene immediately
* Members are discouraged from cutting electrical wires for safety
reasons, trained utilities workers should cut wires.
* Treat all wires as being "Hot" and as being of High
* Injury to fire department personnel or to the public at or near the
scene of an emergency shall be handled as if a rescue unit call had been
made. The patient will be encouraged to
receive treatment and to be transported to the nearest hospital for medical
* A refusal of care or
transport should be documented as such and the patient will be required to sign
off on the encounter form that they have refused care.
* All injuries at or near the emergency scene are to be reported to the
safety officer as soon as possible. In
the event that the safety officer is not present the injury should be reported
to the officer in command.
* Injury to department personnel will take priority over all other
operations, with the exception of scene safety.
* On the scene of any incident that firefighters are exposed to
extra-ordinary physical exertion, environmental hazards or hazardous materials
they shall be monitored by medical personnel.(see rehab guidelines) All firefighters may be subject to an
examination by medical personnel and may on the advice of medical personnel be
relieved of his/her duties by any officer.
Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (S.C.B.A.) shall be used by
firefighters during any of the following operations:
OVERHAUL OPERATIONS the highest
concentration of carbon monoxide is present during overhaul.
STRUCTURE FIRES on hose lines
and close to structure.
VEHICLE FIRES for protection
from superheated gases in a possible explosion and protection from toxic fumes
HAZ MAT THREATS including
smoke investigations and gas or vapor investigations.
SEARCH AND RESCUE for
protection from smoke and toxic fumes and for protection in confined spaces and
limited oxygen atmospheres.
LADDER RESCUE in close proximity to smoke and or fire.
VENTILATION for protection from
toxic fumes, smoke and superheated gases.
GRASS FIRES if a firefighter
feels use of S.C.B.A. is necessary for respiratory protection from excessive
smoke or particles.
S.C.B.A. shall be used only by persons trained in the proper operation,
maintenance and safety procedures of this equipment.
Every firefighter that uses an S.C.B.A. will be responsible for the
cleaning, maintenance and proper storage of that unit after its use.
* Any fire that units respond to that is a controlled burning without a
burning permit will be evaluated for hazards and possibly extinguished.
* The violator of the burning ban shall be warned of his violation and
informed of the proper procedure for open burning. A second offense shall call for issuance of a
(For comprehensive list of all duties see job descriptions)
* Chief - in charge of the
fire ground and is the command authority on the
scene. Generally he assumes the
job of incident commander, but may assign this to an assistant.
* Assistants - Assist chief,
assume chiefs duties in his absence.
observes operations to insure that they are not hazardous to personnel or the
public; can direct firefighter teams; he reports to the chief or the
assistants; is responsible for personnel accountability; assumes command in the
absence of higher ranking officers; this position shall be manned at all
* Captain - is in charge of the
engine company, the tank company or the truck company, he leads /directs attack
teams or lieutenants on operations of
their teams; assumes command of the
scene in the absence of higher ranking officers; he reports to the chief or
assistants. The captain is a working officer
* Lieutenants - lead attack teams, ventilation teams, salvage teams and
search and rescue teams; they report to the captain or oic; they assume command
of the scene in the absence of higher ranking officers. Lieutenants are working officers.
but not limited to the following:
drive apparatus to scene. They may be called upon to establish a water supply, and operate the
fire pump or perform firefighting duties.
They may also be called upon to maintain communications with g.i.e.c.,
the fire base, or other companies
drive tankers to scene, set up dump tanks and prepare to start shuttle
operations on the order of the command officer. They may be called upon to establish a water supply, and operate the
fire pump or perform firefighting duties.
Company Firefighters - prepare to attack the fire by donning scba, advancing
hose lines, obtaining entry, preparing for search and rescue, and any other
duties assigned by officers. They may be called upon to establish a water supply, and operate the fire
pump or perform firefighting duties.
Company Firefighters - assist the efforts of the engine company, estabilish a
water supply and shuttle operation if needed, prepare to ventilate, disconnect
utilities, set up lighting, help to advance hose lines, crowd and traffic
control, and any other duties assigned by officers.
assist the efforts of other companies, prepare to ventilate, disconnect
utilities, set up lighting, help to advance hose lines, crowd and traffic
control, and any other duties as assigned by officers.
- salvage and clean up operations, prepare apparatus for the next call, wash
apparatus, roll hose and put new loads on trucks, refuel and fill booster tanks
FIRE GROUND IDENTIFICATION -
CHIEF OFFICERS - WHITE HELMETS
SAFETY OFFICER -
RESCUE CAPTAIN - BLUE HELMET
FIRE LINE OFFICERS -
STAR OF LIFE ON HELMET
"PARAMEDIC" ON HELMET
Any member or officer of the department will be considered
"on-duty" for the purpose of any emergency call from the time that
member or officer is aware of the call to duty, whether received by telephone,
radio receiver, pager, audible alerting device, word of mouth, or personal
encounter with the emergency. A
member or officer that is aware of, or alerted to, an incident and is unable to
respond for a bona-fide reason shall not be considered to be
"on-duty". The member or
officer shall be considered "on-duty" until such a time that he or
she arrives at the first destination after leaving the fire station following
the return from the emergency scene, or until he or she arrives at the first
destination after leaving the emergency scene if that destination is not the
fire station or a destination concerning fire department official business, or
until he or she is relieved of duty by the officer in command or the safety officer
. A member or officer of the department
shall be considered "on-duty" for the purpose of fire department
business from the time he or she arrives at any fire department function,
departs the fire station enroute to a fire department function at a remote
site, or arrives at the station or any other place determined convenient for
the purpose of maintenance, record keeping, planning, custodial work, or any
other activity deemed necessary to department operation. The member or officer shall be considered
"on-duty" until such a time that he or she shall reach their first
destination after leaving a fire department function unless that destination is
the fire station or a destination concerning official fire department business. Approved by the City Council of Wood River, NE and the Wood River Rural Fire Board ,
In an effort to reduce exposure to infectious disease during medical
emergencies, the following protocol shall be followed:
* Non - sterile examination gloves (latex or vinyl) will be provided
for all personnel. These gloves shall be
worn by all personnel who may come in contact with a patient or with equipment
used on a patient. These gloves shall be
worn regardless of the patients age, gender, relationship to or familiarity
with department personnel.
* Examination gloves shall be put on prior to any patient contact.
* All possible efforts shall be made to avoid contaminating unused
medical equipment by personnel who have blood or other body fluids on their
* All personnel who had direct contact with a patient, a patients body
fluids or items contaminated by a patients body fluids, shall wash their hands
and/ or other exposed body areas with a germicide or anti microbial soap as
soon as practical.
* Fire department personnel shall wash their hands or use a germicidal
agent prior to handling any food or drink or smoking at the scene.
* A firefighter's or EMT's clothing that is
contaminated with blood or other body fluids shall be removed as soon as
practical and washed at the fire station to prevent cross contamination.
* Examination gloves shall be worn when cleaning up body fluid spills
and /or any medical equipment that has been contaminated by patient body
fluids. All contaminated equipment
and/or vehicle surfaces shall be cleaned with a freshly mixed solution of 1
part clorine bleach and 9 parts water.
* Any significant exposure to blood, urine, feces, vomit or other body
fluids shall be reported to an officer immediately. That officer shall report the exposure to the
safety officer or incident commander who, in turn shall activate the
Communicable Disease Reporting system per LB 157, 1989 Session. (Nebraska Legislature)
* The exposed firefighter or EMT will be asked to
submit to any testing that is required by a physician and consent will be
obtained prior to testing.
is the contact of blood, urine, feces, vomit or other body fluids with an open
wound or area of dermatitis of the skin or the contact of blood or other body
fluids with the eyes, nose, mouth, or other mucous membranes.
* When a firefighter or EMT has a significant
exposure, he/she shall report same to an officer immediately. The officer shall report the exposure to the
Safety Officer or Incident Commander who shall activate the Communicable
Disease Reporting System by doing the following immediately:
1. Have the Firefighter or EMT involved fill out an
"Emergency Worker Incident Report Form." This form will be taken to the hospital to
which the patient was transported, immediately after the form is filled
out. This shall be done prior to the
firefighter or EMT going home from the call.
Have the firefighter or EMT fill out a workman's
compensation form within 7 days and file this form with the city clerk.
Notify and provide a copy of the Emergency Workers Incident
Report form to the firefighters or EMT's physician as soon
File a copy of all reports in the Fire Department's file.
All personnel are to be offered vaccination for the
prevention of the Hepatitis B virus.
In the event of a bomb or terrorist threat call, all fire
department personnel shall respond to the fire station.
No unit will respond until ordered to do so by the officer
in command to respond to assist with the incident from a safe distance.
Under no circumstance will any fire department personnel
search for an explosive, chemical, biological or radiological device or
contamination related to a terrorist threat.
A bomb/ terrorist threat is the prime responsibility of law enforcement.
A mass casualty incident exists when:
The number of patients and the nature of their injuries
make the normal level of stabilization and care unachievable.
And / or, the number of EMT's / Paramedics /
Nurses and ambulances that can be brought to the field within 20 minutes, is
And / or, the
stabilization capabilities of the hospitals that can be reached within the time
allowed are insufficient to handle all the patients.
T - TRIAGE ALL PATIENTS
R - RAPIDLY MOVE, COLLECT, AND ORGANIZE PATIENTS
E - EMT FOR EACH PATIENT WITHIN 20 MINUTES.
A -AMBULANCES ENROUTE TO ADMINISTER BLS
T - TELL HOSPITAL TO PREVENT OVERLOAD
FIRE - the fire chief or his assistant is in
charge of fire suppression, and all fire personnel. He is also charged with public safety at the
POLICE - the county sheriff or his designee is in charge of
crowd control, traffic, civil order, and all police personnel. He is also
charged with control of entry to the site.
EMS - the rescue captain
or his assistant is in charge of patient care, triage, transportation, and all EMS personnel.
incident command would normally fall under the responsibility of the fire chief
or his assistant.
TRIAGE OFFICER DUTIES - are initially assumed by the attending EMT / Paramedic/ Nurse on the first arriving
ambulance and may turn over triage officer duties to the first arriving senior
TRANSPORT OFFICER DUTIES - are initially assumed by the driver of
the first arriving ambulance and shall be responsible for staging incoming
ambulances, arranging patient transport to hospitals and notifying hospitals of
income patients. These duties may be transferred to another member upon
arrival of sufficent personnel.
TRIAGE DUTIES: Rapid assessment of patients moving quickly from patient
to patient, not treating anyone, to determine total number of victims, and
initial manpower and equipment needs.
TRIAGE PLAN (ARIZONA "S.T.A.R.T." TRIAGE)
1. QUICK PRIMARY TRIAGE
2. DIRECT WALKING WOUNDED TO
3. RE-TRIAGE FOR SPECIFIC
INJURIES IN TREATMENT AREA
4. CHECK RESPIRATIONS AND ESTIMATE
5. PERFUSION BASED ON PRESENCE
OR ABSENCE OF RADIALPULSE.
6. LEVEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS - AVPU
RED - HIGHEST PRIORITY - critically injured and will die if not treated
immediately, but have a good chance for recovery i.e.
respiratory arrest, severe breathing problems, uncontrolled hemorrhage,
open abdominal wounds, severe shock, burns involving respiratory tract,
unconsciousness, c-spine injury .
YELLOW - SECOND PRIORITY - seriously injured but can survive despite
delayed advanced or surgical care.
i.e. severe burns not involving
respiratory tract, spine injuries other than c-spine, moderate bleeding,
conscious patients with potentially severe head injuries, multiple fractures.
GREEN - LOW PRIORITY - "walking wounded" not life threatening
injuries i.e. minor bleeding, minor fractures, moderate to
BLACK - DELAYED OR DEAD - deceased or so gravely injured they will not
survive the trip to the hospital
i.e. obvious mortal wounds,
cardiac arrest, head injuries with exposed brain matter, exsanguination,
decapitation, severed trunk, incineration.
department is routinely called to assist Emergency Management and the National
Weather Service with storm spotting duties.
The following are the suggested guidelines for these operations:
receiving an alarm for storm spotting duty all personnel shall report to the
fire station or to their preassigned positions .
Activation of the storm spotting network may be made by the chief officers
of the department, the emergency management director(s), the mayor, or by
request of the National Weather Service.
The overhead doors of the station should be raised and other
precautions (aux power) taken in anticipation of loss of electrical service to
the fire station.
The communications desk shall be manned as soon as practical. Personnel at the desk shall be responsible
for monitoring the location of all spotter teams, fielding all radio and
telephone traffic, accessing weather radar information, and reporting pertinent
information to GIEC via the county fire radio system.
In the event of electrical power loss communications with the fire base
should be made on talkaround channel 6 to preserve the repeater's battery
backup system . Units unable to make
contact using channel 6 may use the repeater on channel 5, keeping in mind the
conservation of the battery system.
All department members are equipped with a portable UHF radio, this
radio may be used during storm spotting duties on channels 5 or 6 only.
Spotter teams shall consist of at least two persons unless otherwise
Spotter teams shall be postioned at points around the district as
dictated by the behavior and track of the storm.
Spotter teams shall maintain a safe distance from the storm. Ideally a position 2 to 10 miles south east
of the leading edge of the storm offers the best view.
Mobile Command Unit 60 will be taken out of the city and positioned at
a safe vantage point during any storm warnings. This is to ensure that if the
EOL at the fire station is disabled this unit can be used as a substitute
Spotter teams will use channel 5 to report to the fire station
base. All radio traffic will go through
the fire base, including reporting 10-8 and 10-98.
Reports from spotter teams should include but not be limited to the
following information: Wind direction
and relative speed, observation of hail and its size, description of
threatening cloud formations, rotation of cloud formations, funnel clouds, tornadoes,
Reported events will be coordinated at the fire station base and
forwarded to GIEC as required.
The fire station radio operators shall perform a roll call to establish
the location of each spotter team and their status every 15 minutes during a
storm event. Each team location shall be
logged at each roll call.
If spotter teams move from their position, they shall immediately
notify the fire station base of their direction of travel and intended
In the event of a tornado touchdown GIEC shall be notified by the fire
station base and the warning siren system shall be activated. The fire station should be abandoned if the
track of the tornado is toward the city.
If a strike occurs the incident command system shall be established
from the EOL, a roll call of personnel shall immediately be taken, GIEC shall
be notified to activate the Wood River LEOP call up list, and a
fire department family liaison shall be appointed.
Under no circumstance shall a emergency response be made during an
actual tornado strike. Personnel shall
ensure their own safety until the threat has passed.
ensure that the physical and mental condition of members operating at the scene
of an emergency or a training exercise does not deteriorate to a point that
affects the safety of each member or that jeopardizes the safety and integrity
of the operation.
procedure shall apply to all emergency operations and training exercises where
strenuous physical activity or exposure to excessive heat or cold exist.
Incident Commander shall consider the circumstances of each incident and make
adequate provisions early in the incident for the rest and rehabilitation for
all members operating at the scene. These provisions shall include: medical
evaluation, treatment and monitoring; food and fluid replenishment; mental
rest; and relief from extreme climatic conditions and the other environmental
parameters of the incident. The rehabilitation shall include the provision of
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) at the Basic Life Support
(BLS) level or higher (ALS preferred).
officers shall maintain an awareness of the condition of each member operating
within their span of control and ensure that adequate steps are taken to
provide for each member's safety and health. The command structure shall be
utilized to request relief and the reassignment of fatigued crews.
periods of hot weather, members shall be encouraged to drink water and activity
beverages throughout the day. During any emergency incident or training
evolution, all members shall advise an officer when they believe that their
level of fatigue or exposure to heat or cold is approaching a level that could
affect themselves, their crew, or the operation in which they are involved.
Members shall also remain aware of the health and safety of other members of
ESTABLISHMENT OF REHAB
Incident Commander will establish a Rehabilitation Area when conditions
indicate that rest and rehabilitation is needed for personnel operating at an
incident scene or training evolution. A member will be placed in charge of the
area and shall be known as the Rehab Officer.
location for the Rehabilitation Area will normally be designated by the
Incident Commander. If a specific location has not been designated, the Rehab
Officer shall select an appropriate location based on the site characteristics
and designations below.
It should be in a location
that will provide physical rest by allowing the body to recuperate from the
demands and hazards of the emergency operation or training evolution.
It should be far enough away
from the scene that members may safely remove their turnout gear and SCBA and
be afforded mental rest from the stress and pressure of the emergency operation
or training evolution.
It should provide suitable
protection from the prevailing environmental conditions. During hot weather, it
should be in a cool, shaded area. During cold weather, it should be in a warm,
It should enable members to
be fee of exhaust fumes from apparatus, vehicles, or equipment (including those
involved in the Rehabilitation Sector/Group operations).
It should be large enough to
accommodate multiple crews, based on the size of the incident.
It should be easily
accessible by EMS units.
It should allow prompt
reentry back into the emergency operation upon complete recuperation.
A nearby garage,
building, or other structure.
A school bus, van, or
Fire apparatus, ambulance,
or other emergency vehicles at the scene or called to the scene.
A vehicle that has been
renovated as a Rehabilitation Unit. (This unit may respond by request or be
dispatched during certain conditions.)
An open area in which a
Rehab Area can be created using tarps, fans, etc.
Rehab Officer shall secure all necessary resources required to adequately staff
and supply the Rehabilitation Area. The supplies should include the items
Fluids - water, activity
beverage, oral electrolyte solutions and ice.
Food - soup, broth, or stew
in hot/cold cups, fresh fruit, cookies, etc..
Medical - blood pressure
cuffs, stethoscopes, oxygen administration devices, cardiac monitors,
defibrillators, intravenous solutions, and thermometers.
Other - fans, tarps, smoke
ejectors, heaters, dry clothing, extra equipment, floodlights, blankets and
towels, traffic cones and fireline tape (to identify the entrance and exit of
the Rehabilitation Area).
should be considered by officers during the initial planning stages of an
emergency response. However, the climatic or environmental conditions of the
emergency scene should not be the sole justification for establishing a
Rehabilitation Area. Any activity/incident that is large in size, long in
duration, and/or labor intensive will rapidly deplete the energy and strength
of personnel and therefore merits consideration for rehabilitation.
or environmental conditions that indicate the need to establish a
Rehabilitation Area are a heat stress index above 90 F or windchill index below
must be replaced during exercise periods and at emergency incidents. During
heat stress, the member should consume at least one quart of water per hour.
The rehydration solution should be water or a 50/50 mixture of water and a commercially
prepared activity beverage and administered at about 40 F. Rehydration is
important even during cold weather operations where, despite the outside
temperature, heat stress may occur during firefighting or other strenuous
activity when protective equipment is worn. Alcohol and caffeine beverages
should be avoided before and during heat stress because both interfere with the
body's water conservation mechanisms.
department shall provide food at the scene of an extended incident or when
units are engaged over a meal period. A
cup of soup, broth, or stew is highly recommended because it is digested much
faster than sandwiches and fast food products. In addition, foods such as
apples, oranges, and bananas provide supplemental forms of energy replacement.
Fatty and/or salty foods should be avoided.
"two air bottle rule," or 45 minutes of work time, is recommended as
an acceptable level prior to mandatory rehabilitation. Members should rehydrate
(at least eight ounces) while SCBA cylinders are being changed. Firefighters
having worked for two full 30-minute rated bottles, or 45 minutes, should be
immediately placed in the Rehabilitation Area for rest and evaluation. In all
cases, the objective evaluation of a member's fatigue level shall be the
criteria for rehab time. Rest shall not be less than ten minutes and may exceed
an hour as determined by the Rehab Officer. Fresh crews, or crews released from
the Rehabilitation Area, shall remain available in the immediate operations area to ensure that
fatigued members are not required to return to duty before they are rested,
evaluated, and released by the Rehab Officer.
in the Rehabilitation Area should maintain a high level of hydration. Members
should not be moved from a hot environment directly into an air conditioned
area because the body's cooling system can shut down in response to the
external cooling. An air conditioned environment is acceptable after a
cool-down period at ambient temperature with sufficient air movement. Certain
drugs impair the body's ability to sweat and extreme caution must be exercised
if the member has taken antihistamines, such as Actifed or Benadryl, or has
taken diuretics or stimulants.
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) - EMS should be provided and
staffed by the most highly trained and qualified EMS personnel on the scene (at
a minimum of BLS level (ALS preferred). EMS shall evaluate vital signs,
examine members, and make proper disposition (return to duty, continued
rehabilitation, or medical treatment and transport to medical facility).
Continued rehabilitation should consist of additional monitoring of vital
signs, providing rest, and providing fluids for rehydration. Medical treatment
for members whose signs and/or symptoms indicate potential problems, should be
provided in accordance with local medical control procedures. EMS personnel shall be
assertive in an effort to find potential medical problems early.
Heart Rate and Temperature -
The heart rate should be measured for 30 seconds as early as possible in the
rest period. If a member's hear rate exceeds 110 beats per minute, internal
body temperature should be taken. If the member's temperature exceeds 100.6 F,
he/she should not be permitted to wear protective equipment. If it is below
100.6 F and the heart rate remains above 110 beats per minute, rehabilitation
time should be increased. If the heart rate is less than 110 beats per minute,
the chance of heat stress is negligible.
Documentation - All medical
evaluations shall be recorded along with the member's name and complaints and
must be signed, dated and time by the Rehab Officer or his/her designee.
names of members and times of entry to and exit from the Rehabilitation Area
shall be documented by the Rehab Officer or his/her designee. BLUE accoutability tags will be
collected from each member upon entry into the rehab area and returned to the
member upon exit from the area. Members shall not leave the Rehabilitation Area
until authorized to do so by the Rehab Officer.
maintain an account of all personnel on the fireground and in hazardous
environments and also to insure the safety and well being of all members.
members are equipped with two (2) engraved accountability tags. The
accountability tags are used to identify and account for each member who enters
the emergency scene, and to track their entry into structures, hazardous areas
or rehabilitation areas.
Accountability tags should
be used as follows:
arrival at the scene, the RED tag
shall be removed immediately and placed on the collection ring of the first-in
engine. This tag indicates that you are, or have been on the fireground. This
enables the fireground safety officer to keep an account of the personnel at
entry into a structure or hazardous environment, the BLUE tag shall be pulled and
given to the appointed safety officer. The first in company should pull both
tags, if they know they will encounter a hazardous environment before the
arrival of a safety officer. The maximum number of entries into a hazardous
environment without rest time shall be limited to two (2). When a firefighter
egresses for the second time, they will be given their BLUE tag and should then proceed
to the Rehab area, give the rehab officer their BLUE tag and then rest and
refresh while awaiting further orders.
the incident commander has officially ended the incident, members should
retrieve their tags. After the incident
is ended there should be no tags on the first in attack engine or with the
safety officer. If a tag is left at either place, then someone left without
picking up his or her tags or he or she is still on the fireground somewhere and
a search and rescue effort shall then be put into effect.
safety officer, or his assistant, shall
then make a full report to the incident commander who will file all
documentation after review.
is acceptable to place tags on the engine for another member that is on the
scene. It IS NOT acceptable to retrieve
anyone else's tags. Each member must
retrieve his or her own tags unless they are unable to do so due to injury or
excuse by an officer.
is the responsibility of the driver of each Fire Department vehicle to drive
safely and prudently at all times. Vehicles shall be operated in compliance
with the Nebraska State Motor Vehicle & Traffic
Laws. These laws provide specific legal exceptions to regular traffic
regulations which apply to Fire Department vehicles only when responding to an
emergency incident or when transporting a patient to a medical facility.
Emergency response does not absolve the driver of any responsibility to drive
with due caution. The driver of the emergency vehicle is responsible for its
safe operation at all times.
responding to an emergency, warning lights must be on and sirens should be
sounded to warn drivers of other vehicles, as required by the Nebraska State vehicle & traffic laws
use of sirens and warning lights does not automatically give the right-of-way
to the emergency vehicle. These devices simply request the right-of-way from
other drivers, based on their awareness of the emergency vehicle's
presence. Emergency vehicle drivers must
make every possible effort to make their presence and intended actions known to
other drivers, and must drive defensively to be prepared for the unexpected
inappropriate actions of others.
Department vehicles are authorized to exceed posted speed limits only when
responding to an emergency with lights and siren operating under favorable
conditions. This applies only with light traffic, good roads, good visibility
and dry pavement, as long as life and property is not endangered. A speed of 15 mph over the posted limit is
the recommended maximum.
less than favorable conditions, the posted speed limit is the absolute maximum
present the greatest potential danger to emergency vehicles. When approaching
and crossing an intersection with the right-of-way, drivers shall not exceed
the posted speed limit.
emergency vehicles must use center or oncoming traffic lanes to approach
controlled intersections, (traffic light or stop sign) they must be prepared to
come to a complete stop before proceeding through the intersection, including
occasions when the emergency vehicle has green traffic lights.
approaching an intersection against the traffic control (red light, stop sign)
the fire dept. vehicle shall be prepared to come to a complete stop and may
proceed only when the driver can account for all oncoming traffic in all lanes
yielding the right-of-way.
response with lights and siren is authorized only in conjunction with emergency
incidents. Unnecessary emergency response shall be avoided. In order to avoid
any unnecessary emergency response, the following rules shall apply.
- When the first unit reports on the scene with
"nothing showing" or an equivalent report, any additional units shall
continue in emergency mode, but shall not exceed the posted speed limit.
Emergency Vehicle Driving Cont.
- The first arriving unit will advise additional
units to respond in a non-emergency mode (no lights and siren), whenever
shall avoid backing whenever possible: Where backing is unavoidable, guides
shall be used . If no guide is available, the driver shall dismount and walk
completely around the apparatus to determine if obstructions are present before
members are required to use seat belts at all times when operating a department
vehicle equipped with seat belts. Anyone riding as a passenger in a department
vehicle is also required to use seat belts. The driver should confirm that all
personnel and riders are on-board, properly attired, with seat belts on, before
the vehicle is permitted to move.
Attending EMS personnel in the ambulances
are exempt from using seat belts if this would hinder their ability to provide
personnel shall ride only in regular seats provided with seat belts. Riding on
tailboards or other exposed positions is not permitted on any vehicle at any
an emergency response, fire vehicles should avoid passing other emergency
vehicles. If passing is necessary, permission must be obtained through radio
unique hazards of driving on or adjacent to the emergency scene requires the
driver to use extreme caution and to be alert and prepared to react to the unexpected.
must consider the dangers their moving vehicle poses to scene personnel and
spectators who may be preoccupied with the emergency, and may inadvertently
step in front of or behind a moving vehicle.
stopped at the scene of an incident, vehicles should be placed to protect
personnel who may be working in the street and warning lights shall be used to
make approaching traffic aware of the incident. At night, vehicle mounted
floodlights and any other lighting available shall be used to illuminate the
scene. All personnel working in or near traffic lanes shall wear high
visibility turnouts jackets or vests.
it is not necessary to park vehicles in or near traffic lanes, the vehicle
should be pulled off the road to the shoulder of the road, in driveways, on
curbs, etc., whenever possible. Vehicles
should all be parked on the same side of the road to reduce the chances of
traffic being "funneled" toward personnel operating off of them. Headlights should be turned off when not
needed, while parked along the side of the road at night, to reduce the chance
of blinding oncoming traffic.
Vehicle Driving Cont.
officer in charge of the vehicle is responsible for the safety of all vehicle
operations and managing compliance with this procedure.
Emergency Response Policy
Wood River Fire and Rescue vehicles
shall be operated in a manner that provides for the safety of all persons and
property. Safe arrival shall always have
priority over unnecessary speed and reckless driving while responding to an emergency incident.
Prompt, Safe Response Shall
Be Attained By:
Leaving the station in a standard manner:
personnel on board, seated and belts on
doors fully open
Driving defensively and professionally at reasonable speeds.
Knowing where we are going.
Using warning devices to move around traffic and to request the right-of-way in
a safe and predictable manner.
Fast Response Shall Not Be
Leaving the station before crew has mounted safely and before bay doors are
Driving too fast for conditions.
Driving recklessly or without regard for safety.
Taking unnecessary chances at blind intersections or against traffic controls.
Intimidating or scaring other drivers.
Emergency Response Criteria
Over posted speed limit only as long as life and property are not endangered by
doing so. 15 mph over the established
speed limit as a maximum safe guideline
Traveling in center or against oncoming traffic, prepared to come to a complete
stop at all traffic lights/stop signs.
Posted speed limit when entering intersections with green light.
Slow down and be prepared to come to a complete stop at all red lights, stop
signs and uncontrolled or blind intersections.
To establish a set of protocols for familiarization,
training and use of the mobile and portable radios of the department.
communication is a means of transmitting information from one person to another
without having to be in close proximity of each other. This policy will provide
the information needed for an individual to use the radios consistent with
Federal Communications Commission (FCC), Grand Island / Hall County Emergency
Center (GIEC) and Wood River Fire and Rescue (WRFD) rules and regulations.
Personnel using radios, either mobile or portable, shall be trained and
familiar with the radios, rules and regulations, and procedures as outlined in
The radio is another tool to be used by the members
of WRFD. In order for it to be an effective tool, it has to be used properly
and within accepted standards. Listed are some general rules of good radio
Radio transmissions shall be clear, concise, and necessary, and in a
manner commensurate with the
All messages received should be repeated by the receiving party to
ensure accuracy of the transmission. A shortened version is acceptable as long
as it relays that the message was received correctly.
Personnel should listen before transmitting to ensure that the
frequency is clear.
Think about what you are going to say prior to using the radio.
Don't shout, keep your voice calm.
Turn off all pagers and/or portables when transmitting on a mobile
radio to prevent feedback.
Keep all radio traffic to a minimum.
Ask for the location of the incident from a WRFD unit that is already en
route before calling GIEC for this information.
Generally emergencies should be reported to GIEC via land line
telephone or cellphone unless your radio is the only source of contact
Members may use the WRFD channel 5 repeater system for short personal
messages to other members from time to time.
This tests the operating status of the system. Any failure of the system should be
immediately reported to an officer.
Radio Operation Cont.
Personnel not responding to a call should refrain from using the radios
during an incident and keep the air clear for tactical traffic.
At the scene only the IC of an incident (or his
designee) shall communicate directly with the GIEC 911 dispatcher via radio or
cell phone. All other radio transmissions shall be directed to the appropriate
When addressing or referring to an individual on the
County Fire radio channel, the person's
title or radio ID shall be used. Names
and tactical identifying titles may be used on the fireground channels.
The systems used by GIEC and WRFD are UHF radio systems
for dispatching and operations. Paging
occurs on VHF and UHF systems and is simulcast on County Fire Channel 1.
All mobile radios will be set to scan Channel 1 and
Channel 5 at all incidents unless the order is given for apparatus to switch to
a specific fireground channel. Frequencies are set up as shown in Channel
Assignments* listed below. Mobile radios transmit at a higher power than
portable radios and should be used with this in mind.
All portable radios will use channel 5 as the
automatic fireground frequency on all incidents in Wood River's District unless otherwise
specified. All non-officer portables should be locked on Channel 5 with the
scan off when on the fire ground.
If a mutual aid department is summoned to an WRFD incident, they should be
instructed to use their channel 5 (our channel 3). If they do not have this in
their radio, another fireground channel shall be obtained and assigned to their
operation. A representative from that agency shall remain at the command post
to facilitate communications.
When responding to a Mutual Aid request from another
District or Department, the frequency used should be obtained prior to arrival.
Channel 5 should not be used to communicate with other departments as it is
assigned to WRFD exclusively.
Every effort shall be made to ensure that portable radios are inside of a
hazardous environment so the personnel "inside" have a link to the
"outside". At least one radio should be assigned for each team.
Radio channels are outlined as below. Repeater
channels are broadcast on one frequency and "repeated" on another
frequency, both freqencies constitute a "channel". A one second delay in "capture" of
the repeater is expected and personnel should pause for this at the beginning
of transmissions on these frequencies.
All radio transmissions on the County Fire repeater channel shall have
the prefix "Wood River" in front of any
identification such as "Wood River Unit 31 on the scene".
Simplex is another term used for Talkaround, these are single frequency
"channels" for short distance use only.
WRFD UHF CHANNELS
radios have these 6 frequencies
1 County Fire Repeater Dispatch
2 County Fire talk around
3 County common Fire Ground
4 Administrative Command Repeater
5 Fireground Repeater (WRFD only)
6 Fireground Talkaround of 5
All dispatches should be done by GIEC. In the event
of overwhelming of the Dispatch center, ie. storms, WRFD Emergency Operatons
Location (EOL) may be put into effect to direct calls to minor incidents such
as wires down etc or walk in requests.
For a failure of GIEC dispatch or paging systems due to any reason, WRFD
officers shall alert all members to stand by on the radio and / or man the
station as deemed appropriate.
When an alarm is received, personnel should assemble
at the appropriate apparatus. Each unit shall call "Wood River Unit #__ responding to
______" and give the address of the incident as they understand it.
The first arriving unit shall call "Wood River Unit #__on the scene"
with a brief statement of conditions i.e., "nothing showing",
"heavy smoke condition on second floor", etc.
Radio Operation Cont.
On EMS calls the ambulances should
call "on the scene" and give the staffing situation. i.e. "Wood
River 99-1 is on scene with 3 EMT's and 1 Paramedic"
on the Fireground
The Commander of an incident will maintain
communications with the Grand Island Hall County Emergency Center on Channel 1 as well as
monitoring fireground communications. The commander shall notify GIEC of
his/her ID and that he/she is "Wood River Incident
Command". As soon as practical, a
report of building type, dimensions, location of fire, and operations in
progress should be given to GIEC.
The IC shall determine if additional frequencies are required for the incident
due to size and complexity. Any requests for additional fireground channels
should be made as soon as there is enough people to adequately monitor all
frequencies in the command post.
The dispatch center shall be notified of equipment
that is in service from an alarm. A transmission of "available" is
all that is required as this will indicate that the unit is available for another
call. This should to be done thru the IC but apparatus can call dispatch if the
IC states it to do so.
Radio codes can be confusing if used for all
instances. The NSP 10-code is used in Hall County. However, use of "Plain English" is
encouraged for radio transmissions.
Only those authorized by WRFD to program or
reprogram radios should attempt this procedure. Only frequencies authorized by
the department may be used in department radios.
Personnel Under Age 21
All personnel under the age of 18 shall not be allowed to drive
emergency vehicles under any circumstances. NO EXCEPTIONS.
Between the ages of 18 to 21, any candidate who demonstrates
exceptional abilities with his or her personal driving, may become an emergency
vehicle operator trainee. The individual shall remain on this trainee list
until his or her 21st birthday. During this time candidates will meet the
requirements of the training program established by the Chief Officers of the
The trainee's driving of
emergency vehicles shall be limited to training and non-emergency activities. Exception: If an emergency situation
occurs and there is not an approved
operator present at that time, and the trainee has been trained
sufficiently and approved in writing by a Chief Officer to act in this
capacity, the trainee may operate the vehicle during that emergency.
A Department of Motor
Vehicles check shall be done on every trainee
periodically as determined by the departments insurance carrier. This
report should reflect not more than two (2) "Class B" and no "Class A" violations in a
three year period.
All new candidates for, or existing operators of, emergency vehicles
shall be subject to periodic medical evaluation (that may include drug testing)
as determined by the department. The purpose of the physical examination is to
determine if the candidate or driver has the physical ability to safely and
adequately perform his or her duty as an operator of emergency vehicles.
Periodic classroom training for experienced operators shall be
performed at the discretion of the Chief Officers.
Experienced drivers shall receive retraining based on their actual
hands-on vehicle driving activity. The amount of training shall be determined
by the Chief Officers and must be completed within the designated time frame,
to remain eligible as an approved driver with the department.
New candidates shall have a minimum of 8 hours of supervised non
emergency driving before being assigned duties requiring operation of emergency
A Department of Motor Vehicles driving history check shall be performed
on every trainee periodically as determined by the department insurance
report should reflect not
more than two (2) "Class B" and no
"Class A" violations in a three year period .
Class A Violation Anyone convicted of a Class
"A" violation will be suspended from driving for the department for a
period of up to 24 months. Such members shall also complete a department
approved Emergency Vehicle Driver Training Program at State Fire School and 8
hours of supervised highway driving before being assigned duties requiring
operation of the emergency vehicles.
Class B Violation Any individual who has a combination of two
Class B moving violations and/or chargeable accidents in a three year period
will be issued a warning letter from the Chief Officers.
Any individual who has a combination of three Class B moving violations
and/or chargeable accidents in a three year period may be suspended from
driving for the department for a period of ninety (90) days by the Chief
Any individual who has more than three moving violation convictions or
three chargeable accidents or any combination of more than three of the
formerly stated in a three year period may be suspended from driving for the
department for a period of one year. In addition, the individual shall be
required to complete a department approved Emergency Vehicle Driver Training
Program at State Fire School and 8 hours of supervised highway driving before
assigned duties requiring operation of emergency vehicles.
*Note: Unusual circumstances with
individual cases will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis by the Chief
Class "A" Violations include being convicted of
any of the following:
Driving while intoxicated.
Driving under the influence of drugs.
Negligent homicide arising out of the use of a motor vehicle (gross
Operating during a period of suspension or revocation.
Using a motor vehicle for the commission of a felony.
Aggravated assault with a motor vehicle.
Operating a motor vehicle without owner's authority.
Permitting an unlicensed person to drive.
Hit and run driving.
Class "B" Violations include citations for all
moving violations not listed as Class "A" Violations. (Exceeding the
posted speed limit is a Class "B" violation.)
"Hands-on training or supervised highway
training" shall mean training supervised
by an officer or his designee who is present throughout the training time.
During driving operations the officer or his designee shall be in the right
front seat of the vehicle and no persons except the trainee and the officer or
his designee shall be in the vehicle's front seat.
The department recognizes
that liability is created not only by operation of department vehicles, but
also for personnel operating personal vehicles while on department business.
Personnel who operate private vehicles in a manner inconsistent with Nebraska
Statute and/or causes an accident or injury while responding to the scene of an
emergency, responding to the station, or conducting departmental business,
shall be subject to disciplinary action including suspension of driving
privileges, up to dismissal from the department.
FIRE SCENE INVESTIGATION GUIDELINES
shall be the policy of the department to make every effort to determine the
origin and cause of all fires. Fire officers shall initiate the investigation
of those fires that they respond to within the fire district. Fire officers
shall request a fire investigator via the Incident Commander whenever any of
the following circumstances exist:
Arson, incendiary, or suspicious fires.
The presence of
incendiary patterns, trailers, or
devices (electrical, chemical, mechanical).
Multiple origins or uncommunicated fires.
Prior or habitual fires.
Fires at unusual and suspicious hours.
Fires preceded by
apparent preparation, such as
the removal of contents or the absence of
that are usually found in that type of
Fires which burn or injure anyone.
Unusual conditions and locations of burnings.
Suspicious comments and actions of the occupant.
Condemned property or proceedings for removal of a
Fires prior to or during redecoration or renovation.
Fires where damaged
or pre-burned contents are
Fires of property listed for sale.
Fires discovered by habitual persons.
Fires possibly connected to riots, or civil disturbance.
Fires recently preceded by acts of vandalism.
Evidence or suspicions of any crime having occurred in
connection with the emergency incident.
Fires resulting in fatalities of any persons.
Fires in connection or resulting from an explosion.
Major fires with
significant property or monetary losses.
Incidents which, in the opinion of the Fire Officer, may result in a
lawsuit or have legal ramifications.
Any situation not specifically
mentioned, but in the opinion of the Fire Officer, a fire investigation is
Whenever a fire investigator has been requested by the Fire Officer and
dispatch is unable to contact an
investigator, the Fire Officer shall request the response of law enforcement
All fire scenes that meet the preceding criteria shall be considered
crime scenes and treated as such until proven otherwise.
It is the overall responsibility of the Incident Commander
to make certain that the
on-scene fire investigation
The Officer in Charge or Fire Officers, that
are conducting a fire investigation,
are responsible for
requesting a fire investigator
whenever such circumstances
It is the responsibility of all Officers and Fire Fighters
to be alert for any evidence which
may aid in the
investigation and to preserve such
evidence until it can
be properly secured and
During fire fighting
operations, be alert for conditions
which may indicate arson.
Initiate fire investigation
procedures as soon as possible
after knock-down and before
First, try to determine the
point of origin.
Next, try to determine the
cause of the fire.
Conduct overhaul operations with care as directed by the
officer in charge during the
Preserve all evidence which may be found.
Request a fire investigator
as per this guideline.
Secure the location of
possible witnesses to the event.
Secure overhaul operations as far as may be practical
until the arrival of the
A Rapid Intervention Team (RIT) will be established at any
incident where firefighters are placed into hazardous areas that require the
use of SCBA. Most of the time, this will involve the actual placement of
personnel into structures or confined spaces. The following guidelines shall
also be used for search and rescue operations of civilians.
When to Deploy a RIT
Typically, any sudden hazardous event such as collapse, flashover,
backdraft, or rapid increase in fire may put a RIT into action. However, the
more common occurrence is the lost or disoriented firefighter.
Another occurrence is a radio transmission indicating a call for help
(Mayday). Team members should constantly monitor the fire ground radio
frequency. The downed firefighter may get only one call for help out over the
The IC may deploy the RIT because an accountability
check reveals a missing firefighter.
The establishment of a RIT can be delayed under the
following circumstances only:
Emergency rescue activities
that can be performed immediately.
Incipient stage fire.
Fire progressed beyond
incipient stage with 3 firefighters on scene. A fourth firefighter must be
(confirmed) within seven minutes of arriving on scene.
The IC will need to take
into account the number of crews inside the structure and assign enough RIT members as needed.
Additionally, the IC should try to use qualified personnel for the RIT assignment.
Set up of RIT / S&R
Once the RIT has been assigned, the crew
will provide their BLUE accountability tags to the
accountability/safety officer. The RIT team can utilize "RIT" as their radio call
sign. Multiple RIT teams can be labeled RIT 1, RIT 2, etc.
The RIT should try to learn as much
about the building as possible prior to a distressed call being received. This
is considered a proactive response. This may include a quick walk around or
3-side look at the building, scanning over a preplan, or through talking with
others on the fire scene. The RIT should also abreast of the
firefighting activities that are being accomplished on the scene.
Command may have an assigned RIT member accomplish other
"proactive" duties such as horizontal venting, etc. These duties,
however, shall not interfere with the ability of the RIT to provide a quick
response. At least (1) member of an assigned RIT will be monitoring
fireground activity and radio traffic for possible deployment.
Tools that the RIT / S&R should stage out
of the way of the main firefighting activity are:
Tarp or salvage cover to place tools
Halligan tool/other appropriate forcible entry tools
Flat head axe
Rope for tag line (this line should be bagged)
Chainsaw, K-12 saw
Spare SCBA (this will be for the person being rescued)
Spare SCBA tank
Command will also need to consider the need for advanced extrication
equipment, such as hydraulic tools, air bags, etc., should they be needed in
the event of collapse or entanglement.
A RIT will only deploy by order
of Incident Command. The RIT, or any other fireground
personnel, will notify command of any problems or dangerous situations that
need to be brought to the attention of command.
Try to continue to establish contact with the firefighter in trouble.
This could give you information about the location of the crew, injuries,
entrapment, and air left in SCBA.
If practical, a separate radio channel assignment should be made for
the RIT rescue only. Additionally, the IC may want to
assign another officer to oversee the rescue operations should it occur.
Team members should select entry tools from the staging tarp, taking
only the necessary tools so as not to slow the rescue. If larger or more
specialized tools are needed, a second team in can retrieve them from the
The search rope should be prepared. The last team member will deploy
the rope. The reasons for utilizing a search rope are:
Enable RIT/S&R to find its exit
Enable team to go straight for the PASS
Lead a second RIT/S&R team to the rescue
Before entering the building, the RIT leader will select the best
entry point based on information gathered from the firefighter(s) in trouble,
the IC, and visual observations. The closest, quickest, and safest entry point
should be used. The RIT leader must also:
Account for all RIT members prior to entry
Ensure the team is "tagged in" with the accountability
Ensure appropriate tools have been gathered, including emergency SCBA
Ensure the teams search rope is secure and ready for deployment.
Confirm that a protective hoseline will be coming in behind the team.
structure has more than 1 story, confirm that ladders have been placed for
Entry and search procedures
As you enter the building, get low or drop to your knees and maintain
silence. Listen for the PASS device and determine where it is coming from. This
will determine your search pattern. If the PASS is not activating, listen for
calls for help, the striking of a tool, or radio transmissions. Periodically
stop to reaffirm that you are going in the correct direction.
If command warrants, you may vent as you proceed through the structure.
This will only be done as long as it does not extend the fire towards the
Reaching the downed firefighter(s), immediately perform a size up of
the situation and notify the IC by radio. Identify any needs you may have such
as more help or extrication equipment. The PASS device will also need to be
turned off so communications will not be hindered.
Keep aware of the fire conditions in your area while you work on the
downed firefighter(s). One team member should stay in contact with the rope at
Check to see if the downed firefighter is breathing. You and the rest
of the RIT team will need to hold your breath to hear this.
Try to see how much air is left in the downed firefighters SCBA.
If a SCBA swap is needed, do this as quickly as possible. Make sure the
rescue SCBA is secured to avoid having the mask pulled off.
Check the downed firefighter head to toe for entanglement. Cut wires,
ceiling tile hangers, etc. prior to movement.
When you are ready to move, pull the downed firefighter utilizing the
shoulder straps of the SCBA on his/her back. Another method is to run a looped
piece of rope or webbing through both shoulder straps, form a girth hitch, and
then use the looped area for pulling.
Pull as a team (2 rescuers). Rescuers should communicate to each other
to maximize their pulling efforts. If you encounter resistance while pulling,
stop to identify the problem.
If the primary team becomes exhausted while exiting with the downed
firefighter or while searching, the IC must have a second team ready. This team
should follow and use the same search rope.
The immediate evacuation signal from a building will consist of blasts
from air horns and/or the high-low ("European" sound) electronic
siren. Radio call sign for an immediate evacuation will be "Evacuate, Evacuate, Evacuate". These signals should
continue until ceased by Command. When these signals are heard, ALL crews are to immediately
exit the building and report to their officers/crew leaders. Command will then
call for a personnel accountability report.